Opportunities in Quantum Networks: 2022 to 2031

Report IQT-QN2022-0622
Published June 13, 2022

This report analyzes business opportunities in the quantum networking market as it makes its transition from QKD testbeds to full-service repeater-based quantum internets. The report identifies quantum networking market opportunities in a number of areas including the following:

#1. Opportunities prior to the quantum internet: For now, quantum networks and QKD networks are taken as more or less the same. This report analyzes the potential for both QKD chips and next generation of QKD boxes; pre-quantum internet networking. We show how QKD will be integrated into boxes along with other kinds of/additional functionalities. Another part of this story that we discuss is the use of distributed quantum computers to scale up quantum computing to handle “industrial scale” problems, perhaps beyond what can be handled in the current NISQ era. This part of the report draws on research and analysis that IQT Research has been doing in the QKD area for six years.

#2. Quantum sensor networks: A new type of quantum network is covered in the report — quantum sensor networks. Until recently, quantum sensors were used in a limited way and were mostly non-networked research devices. In the recent past year, however, researchers and startups are finding ways to deploy sensors in networks. We are, for example, seeing networked quantum sensors used for distributed clocking systems, seismic monitoring and weather networks and interferometry used in space exploration. Quantum sensor networks are also of growing interest to the defense industry since they provide mechanisms for targeting that are theoretically secure against jamming. This part of our quantum networking report considers both classical networks of quantum sensors and future end-to-end quantum sensors networks.

#3. Current business potential from the quantum internet: There are already quantum networks integrated with the existing Internet that have been demonstrated in China, the U.S. and the Netherlands. We discuss in this report, how the speed of innovation in this area, in collaboration with commercial equipment vendors, suggests significant commercial opportunities in the near term. For example, we are now seeing quantum networks with prototype quantum repeaters in both the U.S. and Europe. In this report we chronicle how the quantum internet will be born and how revenues will be generated from early products and networks during its early years.

#4. Satellites vs. fiber in quantum networks: Until commercial repeaters become widely available, satellites will play an important role in long-haul quantum networks. There are already impressive examples of satellite quantum communications in Canada (QEYSSat) and China (Micius). This report discusses how quantum satellite networks can prepare the way for tomorrow’s long-haul quantum networks. The effectiveness of satellite quantum is illustrated by the fact that in China, 150 industrial users have already been connected to the Micius network in China, Also, satellites provide the opportunity to deploy novel value-added quantum services such as QKD-on-demand or entanglement on demand.

#5 The Geopolitics of quantum Networks: Coverage in this report comprises North America, the EU, non-EU Europe, China, Asia other than China, Australasia, and Russia. And as we discuss this report, policy and geopolitical issues are also creating new opportunities. Questions that we examine include whether the antipathy to QKD by the NSA and other intelligence services will hurt the QKD market as a whole and whether the war in the Ukraine, stimulate the quantum technology business as a whole. For example, recently the Defense Innovation Accelerator for the North Atlantic (DIANA) and Australian, U.K. and U.S. (AUKUS) agreements were announced to further strengthen quantum-related collaborations between western nations in response to both the Russian-Ukraine war and the growing threat of Chinese quantum related advances.

This report also discusses how major networking and electronics companies around the world are building product and marketing strategies for quantum networks. Some of the large commercial companies that we discuss include Airbus, AWS, BT, Cisco, Deutsche Telekom, Huawei, Juniper, Korea Telecom, LG, Mitsubishi, NEC, Nomura, NTT, Quantum Xchange, Raytheon, Thales, Toshiba, Verizon, and ID Quantique, to name just a few In addition, we examine the start-ups in the quantum networking space and their prospects for financing.

Finally, the report contains ten-year revenue forecasts of the quantum networking business, based on current and expected funding. The primary breakouts are quantum networked security/QKD, quantum repeater networks and quantum sensor networks. Some of the segments that are forecast beyond include QKD chips, repeater hardware and wireless networks of quantum sensors.

Table of Contents
Chapter One: Introduction
1.1 Quantum Networks Today: Paths to the Commercial Quantum Networks
1.1.1 QKD Networks
1.1.2 Quantum Sensor Networks
1.1.3 Distributed Quantum Computing
1.2 The Quantum Internet
1.3 The Politics of Quantum Networks
1.3.1 Quantum Networks and Sino-American Relations
1.3.2 Impact of Russia and the Ukraine War
1.3.3 Impact of Brexit
1.4 Summary of Ten-year Forecasts for Quantum Networks
 
Chapter Two: Quantum Networks in North America
2.1 Overview of Quantum Networks in the U.S.
2.1.1 National Quantum Initiative Act
2.1.2 Quantum Networking and Security/Defense in the U.S.
2.1.3 NIST, QED-C and Networking
2.2 Canadian Quantum Networks
2.2.1 Canada Quantum Encryption Science Satellite (QEYSSat)
2.3 Recently Funded NSF Quantum Networks
2.3.1 Midwest Collaboration (HQAN)
2.3.2 Mid-Atlantic Region Quantum Network
2.3.3 Mid-Atlantic Region Quantum Network—Quantum Networks to Connect Quantum
Technology (QuanNeCQT)
2.3.4 Center for Quantum Networking (CQN)
2.4 DOE Quantum Networks
2.4.1 Q-NEXT
2.4.2 Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL)
2.4.3 Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL) and Los Alamos National Lab (LANL)
2.4.4 Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) and Stony Brook University (SBU)
2.5 NASA’s National Space Quantum Laboratory Program
2.5.1 MIT Lincoln Labs
2.5.2 The Space Entanglement and Annealing Quantum Experiment (SEA0QUE)
2.6 Quantum Xchange: Quantum on the Acela Route
2.6.1 Network Architecture
2.6.2 Services Offered
2.7 AT&T, Caltech and Fermi Lab
2.8 The MIT Lincoln Lab Quantum Network Testbed
2.9 The Role of the Hudson Institute
2.10 Recent Developments at the U.S. National Laboratories: The Chicago Quantum Exchange
2.11 Other Private Companies Active in this Space
2.11.1 Xanadu
2.11.2 Aliro
2.12 Summary of this Chapter
 
Chapter Three: Quantum Networks in China
3.1 Jian-Wei Pan: The Father of Quantum?
3.1.1 Military Orientation of Chinese Quantum Research
3.2 Chinese Quantum Infrastructure: Satellites and Fiber
3.2.1 Hefei Quantum Network
3.2.2 Jinan Quantum Network
3.2.3 Wuhan Quantum Network
3.2.4 Qingdao Quantum Network
3.3 Chinese Satellite Networks
3.4 Notable Applications and Achievements of Chinese Quantum Networks
3.4.1 Recent Achievements — 2021
3.5 China’s Quantum-related Commercial Activity
3.6 Summary of Quantum Networks in China
 
Chapter Four: Other Quantum Networking Projects in Asia
4.1 Singapore
4.1.1 National University of Singapore: Centre for Quantum Technologies
4.1.2 Singapore’s Quantum Engineering Program (QEP)
4.1.3 National Quantum-Safe Network (NQSN)
4.2 Quantum Networks in South Korea: SK Telecom
4.2.1 South Korean Telecom Companies
4.2.2 More on SKT
4.2.3 KT and Toshiba
4.2.4 SK Broadband and IDQ
4.3 Quantum Networks in Japan
4.3.1 NICT
4.3.2 NTT
4.3.3 Toshiba
4.3.4 Global Quantum Cryptography Communications Network
4.3.5 Q-STAR—Quantum Strategic Industry Alliance for Revolution
4.3.6 Nomura
4.4 Summary of Asian Quantum Networking Activity Outside of China
 
Chapter Five: Quantum Networks in Australasia
5.1 Australia
5.1.1 Domestic Commercial Activity in Quantum
5.1.2 Quintessence Labs
5.1.3 Project Q—Peace and Security in a Quantum Age
5.1.4 CQC2T
5.2 A Note on Quantum in New Zealand
5.3 Summary
 
Chapter Six: Quantum Networks in the EU
6.1 Funding Quantum Networks in the EU
6.1.1 CiViQ
6.1.2 UNIQORN
6.1.3 OPENQKD
6.1.4 EuroQCI
6.1.5 QSAFE
6.2 The Quantum Internet Alliance
6.3 Spain: QuantumCat
6.4 The Netherlands: QuTech Research Institute
6.5 Germany
6.6 France
6.7 Summary of Quantum Networking in the EU
 
Chapter Seven: Quantum Networks in Europe Outside the EU
7.1 Funding for Quantum Networking in the U.K.
7.1.1 U.K. Metropolitan Area Networks
7.1.2 Quantum Network in Cambridge
7.1.3 The UK Communications Hub
7.1.4 ArQit
7.1.5 BT QKD programs
7.1.6 University of Strathclyde Glasgow
7.2 Switzerland
7.2.1 University of Geneva
7.2.2 University of Basel
7.2.3 EPFL
7.3 Summary of this Chapter
 
Chapter Eight: Quantum Networks in Russia
8.1 Quantum State of the Art in Russia
8.1.1 The Russian QKD Industry
8.1.2 Russian Quantum Efforts in the Wake of the War in the Ukraine
8.2 Quantum Network Testbeds
8.3 Russian Quantum Center
8.3.1 Current Situation at RQC
8.3.2 Current Networking-related Projects
8.4 Activities in Russian Universities and Academic Facilities
8.4.1 Moscow State University — QKD projects
8.4.2 ITMO
8.4.3 Kazan--The Zavoisky Physical–Technical Institute and the Kazan Quantum Center
8.4.4 Quantum Hacking Lab
8.4.5 National Technology Initiative: Center for Quantum Communication
8.4.6 Quantum Satellite Activities
8.5 Other Russian Quantum Network-related Projects
8.5.1 Rostelcom
8.5.2 Russian Railways
8.6 Summary of our Findings on Quantum Networking
About IQT Research
About the Analyst
Acronyms and Abbreviations Used In this Report
 
List of Exhibits
Exhibit 1-1: Timetable for the Evolution of Quantum Networks
Exhibit 1-2: Market for Quantum Networking Systems by Type and Products Used
($ Millions)
Exhibit 2-1: Hudson Institute Quantum Alliance Initiative: Membership
Exhibit 3-1: Notable Chinese Quantum Networking Achievements
Exhibit 3-2: Chinese Quantum Companies
Exhibit 4-1: Asian Quantum Networking Activity Outside of China
Exhibit 4-2: Toshiba Quantum Networking Projects
Exhibit 5-1: Australian Quantum Start-ups
Exhibit 6-1: EU Quantum Networking Activities
Exhibit 7-1: BT’s Commercial-grade Quantum Links
Exhibit 7-2: UK Communications Hub Participants
Exhibit 7-3: BT QKD Programs
Exhibit 8-1: Russian Quantum Networking-Related Development Directions
Exhibit 8-2: Structure of the Russian QKD Sector
Exhibit 8-3: Russian Quantum Testbeds
Exhibit 8-4: Moscow State University—Areas of Quantum Networking Related
Exhibit 8-5: Quantum Network Research in Kazan—Areas of Quantum Networking Related
Exhibit 8-6: Russian Quantum Satellite Activities


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