Opportunities for Cloud Access to Quantum Computers: 2021-2026

Report: IQT-CAQC-0621
Published June 21, 2021

The majority of quantum computer users currently access the quantum computer through a cloud. This has already created a number of opportunities for players in the market. For cloud providers themselves quantum computers present a new market to attack with specially designed and branded offerings. For quantum computer firms themselves the presence of clouds as an access option means that there is a mature pathway to customers and the opportunity to do deals with cloud providers that is profitable for all parties.

The revenue from cloud access will increase as the quantum computing business grows in the next few years. However, there are important factors that will shape the opportunity for quantum clouds going forward. For one thing, there is already signs that prices of quantum computers will begin to drop in the next few years to become more affordable to at least large end users: customer premises computers do not need cloud access. Then there is the question of how today’s classical cloud access will merge into a qubit-transporting quantum Internet.

In this report, we examine the scenarios for evolution of quantum clouds including what users have to expect from them in terms of speeds and latency. We also analyze in some depth how we expect quantum clouds to be branded. The report also includes detailed forecasts of cloud access revenues with breakouts by end user and type of cloud provider. Finally, this report discusses access strategies for the leading quantum computer makers and the direction in which they are headed.

The forecasts for this report are provided in a separate Excel sheet so the report reader can construct alternative scenarios for quantum clouds.

Table of Contents—Opportunities for Cloud Access
Chapter One: Introduction
1.1 Background to this Report
1.1.1 Quantum Cloud Suppliers
1.1.2 Simulators and Emulators
1.1.3 Quantum Clouds for Quantum Access
1.2 Will Cloud Access Compete with Premises Quantum Computers?
1.3 Quantum Clouds and Quantum Internets
1.4 Goals and Scope of this Report
1.5 Methodology of this Report
1.6 Plan of this Report
Chapter Two: Quantum Cloud Technologies and Economics
2.1 Cloud Computing and Quantum Cloud Computing
2.1.1 The Path to the Quantum Cloud
2.1.2 Quantum and the NIST Definition of Clouds
2.1.3 Advantages of Quantum Clouds
2.2 Value Added Services for Quantum Clouds
2.3 Pricing Strategies for Quantum Clouds
2.3.1 Free Service
2.3.2 Pay-as-you-go
2.3.3 Per Operation Pricing Strategies
2.3.4 Other Possible Pricing Strategies
2.4 The Alternatives to Clouds
2.4.1 Clouds vs. Premises Computers
2.5 Security Issues in Quantum Clouds
2.5.1 Quantum and Cloud Security
2.5.2 Growing Vulnerability of Cloud Encryption
2.5.3 Cloud Security Alliance: The Quantum Safe Security Working Group
2.5.4 Examples of Products that Address Clouds with Quantum Technology
2.6 Quantum Clouds and the Transition to the Quantum Internet
2.7 Key Points Made in this Chapter
Chapter Three: Quantum Clouds: End-User Markets
3.1 Current and Future Customers for Quantum Clouds
3.2 Quantum Clouds in Financial Services
3.2.1 Fidelity and Amazon Braket
3.3 Aerospace and Defense
3.3.1 Boeing
3.3.2 Airbus
3.4 Materials Science and Pharma
3.4.1 Menten AI
3.4.2 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
3.4.3 Dow Chemical
3.5 Energy and Utilities
3.5.1 ExxonMobil
3.5.2 General Atomics
3.5.3 Dubai Electricity and Water Authority
3.6 Automotive and Ground Transport
3.6.1 Daimler/Mercedes-Benz
3.6.2 Volkswagen AG
3.6.3 Toyota and DENSO
3.7 Healthcare
3.7.1 Case Western Reserve
3.8 Wholesale and Retail
3.8.1 Save-On-Foods
Chapter Four: Quantum Cloud Supplier Strategies
4.1 Alibaba (China)
4.1.1 Alibaba Cloud Quantum Development (ACQDP)
4.1.2 IQT Research’s Perspective on Alibaba
4.2 Amazon (United States)
4.2.1 Quantum Computer Services
4.2.2 Simulators
4.2.3 Early-Stage Customers
4.2.4 Pricing
4.2.5 AWS Center for Quantum Computing and Quantum Solutions Lab
4.2.6 IQT Research’s Perspective on Amazon
4.3 Baidu (China)
4.3.1 Quantum Leaf
4.3.2 Quanlse
4.3.3 IQT Research’s Perspective on Baidu
4.4 D-Wave (Canada)
4.4.1 LEAP
4.4.2 IQT Research’s Perspective on D-Wave
4.5 Google (United States)
4.5.1 The Google Quantum AI Campus
4.5.2 IQT Research’s Perspective on Google
4.6 Honeywell (United States)
4.6.1 Honeywell and Quantum Clouds
4.6.2 IQT Research’s Perspective on Honeywell
4.7 IBM United States)
4.7.1 A Note on Qiskit Runtime
4.7.2 IBM’s Quantum Network
4.7.3 IBM’s Roadmap
4.7.4 IQT Research’s Perspective on IBM
4.8 IonQ (United States)
4.8.1 Cloud Access
4.8.2 IonQ’s Roadmap and Algorithmic Qubits
4.8.3 IQT Research’s Perspective on IonQ
4.9 Microsoft (United States)
4.9.1 Current Users of Azure Quantum
4.9.2 IQT Research’s Perspective on Microsoft
4.10 QCWare (United States)
4.10.1 Forge
4.10.2 IQT Research’s Perspective on QC Ware
4.11 QuTech (The Netherlands)
4.11.1 Quantum Inspire
4.11.2 IQT Research’s Perspective on QuTech
4.12 Rigetti (United States)
4.12.1 Rigetti Quantum Cloud Services (QCS)
4.12.2 IQT Research’s Perspective on Rigetti
4.13 Strangeworks (United States)
4.13.1 Integration with IBM Cloud Services
4.13.2 IQT Research’s Perspective on Strangeworks
4.14 Xanadu (United States)
4.14.1 Xanadu Quantum Cloud
4.14.2 IQT Research’s Perspective on Xanadu
4.15 Zapata Computing (United States)
About the Analyst
Acronyms and Abbreviations Used In this Report
List of Exhibits
Exhibit 1-1: Quantum Cloud Providers
Exhibit 2-1: Selected QC Technologies and Vendors that have Adopted Them
Exhibit 2-2: Access Alternatives in the Quantum Computing Environment

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